In the school setting, Kowalski (2003) decry the different definitions and treatment given to the terms “leadership” and “management” (Yukl, 1989; Shields & Newton, 1994). One consequence is that many educators look at management as negative and leadership as positive. This is not necessary since both leadership and management has its own positive functions. In the context of schools, Dunklee (2000) used the word “administration” to join the concepts of “management” and “leadership”. Leadership focuses on determining organizational objectives and strategies, building consensus for meeting those objectives, and influencing others to work toward the objectives. Management is a process of developing tactical plans to implement strategies and control resources in an effort to achieve organizational objectives. Administration encompasses both management and leadership (Kowalski & Reitzug, 1993). Kowalski (2003) believes that in school administration, both management and leadership are integrated in the contemporary practice of school administration.
It was during the first two decades of the twentieth century that pressure was placed on school officials to adopt management practices done in business and industries. Schools began to use management principles and practices in 1905 and became prominent in the 1930’s (Callahan, 1962; Murphy & Hallinger, 1987; Glass et. al., 2000; Kowalski, 1995). Management is conceived of as the coordination of human, material, technological and financial resources needed for the organization to reach its goals (Hess & Sociliano, 1996). Management is a process of obtaining, deploying and utilizing a variety of essential resources in support of an organization’s objectives (Bittel & Newstrom, 1990; Dressler, 2001).
Management Works of School Principals
The National Association of Secondary School Principals (NSSSP) conceptualized the management works of principals into three skills with twelve sub-categories. The first is the administrative skill which includes problem analysis, judgment, organizational ability, and decisiveness. The second category of principals’ skill is interpersonal which include leadership, sensitivity, oral communication, and written communication. The third category of principals’ skill is intrapersonal which include stress tolerance, range of interest, personal motivation, and educational values.
Hughes & Ubben (1984) identified five areas in which the principal must function effectively: school-community relations; staff personnel development; pupil personnel development; educational program development; and, business and building development (Hersey, n.d.).
Kimborough & Burkett (1990) listed the major duties of principals as being responsible for all activities within the school, administering its operation, formulating the teaching program based on the prescribed curriculum, maintaining good public relations with the community, utilizing resources to enrich the learning program, assisting in the preparation of budget, keeping records of collection and expenditure, explaining to teachers the board policies, maintaining an up-to-date policy manual, and assisting in the evaluation and recommendation of personnel in the school. Principals also supervise instructions, oversee the health and safety of students, implement a code of discipline and behavior within the school, and perform such other duties which may be assigned by the superintendent pursuant to the written policies of the board of education.
The research of Davis (1986) found out that principals are focused on curriculum planning, implementing and evaluating. NASP (1979) found out that principals spent much of their time in school management, with personnel, students’ activities, student behavior, program development, works at the district office, community relations and planning in a consecutive order.
Prior to 1850, many of the duties of principals are of a clerical nature (Blumberg & Greenfield, 1980). A sampling of the duties shows that: 58.8 % concerned records and reports, 23.4% related to matters of school organization, 11.8% focused on building and equipment, and 5.9% concerned discipline and care of pupils. By the year 1900, the principal became the manager of the school and his/her office serves the following functions: a communications center, a clearing house, a counselling center, a research division, a repository of school records, a planning center, a resource center, and a coordinating center (Blumberg & Greenfield, 1980).
Management styles have been associated and treated as synonymous with leadership styles or administrative styles, in the context of school management (Kowalski, 2003). Styles refer more directly to individual behavior, action disposition, or set of patterns of behaviors, displayed by an administrator (Immegart, 1988). Styles describe the way an administrator handles work responsibilities such as human relations, supervision and sharing power (Bassett, 1970).
The three most talked about management styles are democratic, autocratic and laissez faire. A democratic manager delegates authority to his/her staff, giving them responsibility to complete the task given to them. Staff will complete the tasks using their own work methods. However, the task must be completed on time. Employees are involved in decision making giving them a sense of belonging and motivating individuals. In contrast to democratic style, an autocratic manager dictates orders to their staff and makes decisions without any consultation. The laissez faire manager sets the tasks and gives staff complete freedom to complete the task as they see fit. There is minimal involvement from the manager. The manager however does not sit idle and watch them work! He or she is there to coach or answer questions, supply information if required (http://www.learnmanagement2.com/leadership%20styles.htm).
According to Cherry (2010), these three management styles was formulated by Kurt Lewin in 1939. Authoritarian, also known as autocratic leaders, provide clear expectations for what needs to be done, when it should be done, and how it should be done. Authoritarian leaders make decisions independently with little or no input from the rest of the group. Lewin’s study found that participative style, also known as democratic leaders, is generally the most effective leadership style for they offer guidance to group members, and participate in the group and allow input from other group members. Delegative style, also known as laissez faire leaders, were the least productive of all three groups for they offer little or no guidance to group members and leave decision-making up to group members (http://psychology.abut.com.od/leadership/ a/leadstyles.htm).
These management styles – autocratic democratic and laissez faire, will be used as descriptions of the management styles of principals among elementary Christian schools in Cavite which will be correlated with job satisfaction of teachers.