Halpin (1956) found out that the management style characterized as high on both task and relationship dimensions is associated with such group characteristics as harmony, intimacy and procedural clarity, and with favorable changed in group attitude. Rapport and a positive perception of the principal as a leader can improve climate and subsequently student achievement (Miller, 1969). Staff participation and leadership in decision-making is related to student achievement, cohesiveness of the schools and teacher morale (Wynne, 1980). Principals’ involvement in and concern for instruction is related with pupil social growth, morale and school climate (Young, 1980). Staff morale and school climate is closely related with effective principalship (Sapone, 1983).
Kowalski (2003), after reviewing a number of researches, reported that the effectiveness of task-oriented versus people-oriented management has not conclusively supported the superiority of either orientation. Smith and Piele (1997), based from a review of researches, reported that there are different effects of management styles in organizational context. First, a minor task that is simple and unambiguous may benefit from a directive approach while a complex work will often benefit from a more participative approach. Second, workers with little training or expertise will benefit from clear, detailed directions or emotional support while highly capable workers may resent micromanagement from above. Third, when circumstances dictate a quick decision, participation may have to be sacrificed for efficiency. Fourth, ingrained patterns of behaviors may crimp any kind of management styles. Fifth, a participative approach may soften resistance to new ideas. And sixth, events in surrounding community or the larger society may affect management style.
Bunanig (1976) in her research of management behaviors of elementary and secondary schools of CFIC school administrators revealed that principals consider themselves as consideration-oriented. Teachers had similar perceptions of the administrators and viewed them as considerate and democratic. Marra (1988) in his research of elementary principals’ leadership behaviors revealed that teacher perception of principals’ behavior was affected by how much they participated in decision making. Teachers’ job satisfaction and decision making participation correlated with principals’ leadership behavior which is also correlated with the achievement of students.