Women might be expected to be more satisfied with their jobs than men because their lower expectations are consistent with the female role in the home (Lowenberg & Conrad, 1998; Hopkins, 1983). Gregoria (1978) investigated the motivational-hygiene elements of satisfaction in the morale state of personnel of the Manufacturing Company in Metro Manila. She found out that the overall employees’ morale is highly positive and the age, tenure, marital status and level of employment, but not sex, of the subjects influence their morale states.
In the case of teachers, women consider teaching and having family a convenient and comfortable situation (Martires, 2009). Some studies found higher levels of job satisfaction by females (Bilge, et. al., 2007; Hodson, 1989; Kelly, 1989) but there are also investigations that found out higher job satisfaction by males (Bilge, et. al., 2007; Friessen, et. al., 1983).
Scott, Swortzel & Taylor (2005) made a study to determine what demographic factors were related to the level of job satisfaction of Extension Agents. It was found out that there is a significant relationship that existed between job satisfaction constructs and the demographic factors of gender and race.
Barrows and Wesson (2005), on their research on the job satisfaction among public and private sector professionals in Ontario, Canada, found out that female respondents are significantly less satisfied with their coworkers, operating conditions, contingent rewards, opportunities for promotion, and the training opportunities provided by their employers.
Mabutas (2000) made a study on the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance of the personnel of CIDO. He found out that the level of job satisfaction of the said personnel falls under the category of satisfactory – high level of satisfaction; age, gender, civil status, educational attainment and designation did not cause significant differences in the level of job satisfaction of the personnel; demographics did not caused any significant difference in the level of job performance of the personnel; and, there exists a very high positive correlation between job satisfaction and job performance.
Early findings of the relationship between age and job satisfaction indicate a U-shaped or curvilinear relationship. This means that job satisfaction in younger age groups declines and improves in older employees (Lowenberg & Conrad, 1998; Gruneberg, 1979). Job satisfaction typically increases with age because old workers have realistic view of work and life (Drafke, 2008; Clark, et. al., 1996). Age and work experience were found to correlate significantly with job satisfaction and those belonging to the older bracket and who have longer work experience tend to be more satisfied (Martires, 2009; Lee & Tarce, 1981). Employees begin work with unrealistic expectations about what they will get out of their jobs. They endure the first decade of work, gradually becoming more discouraged. Then, employees moderate their expectations to fit their current state of employment and begin to see their jobs more positively, resulting in higher level of job satisfaction (Lowenberg & Conrad, 1998; Organ & Hamner, 1982). Older, married and experienced workers were found to be more satisfied than were young, unmarried and less experienced workers (Lowenberg & Conrad, 1998; Khalaque & Rahman, 1987).
In the field of education, younger males reported higher degrees of job satisfaction than did female academics of the same group while female academics older than 35 years old reported higher levels of job satisfaction than did their male peers (Bilge, et. al., 2007; Sloane & Ward, 2001). In their study among Turkey educators, Bilge, et. al. (2007), they got mixed results where some researchers found a significant correlation between age and job satisfaction whereas others did not.
Old teachers, due to their security, status, financial stability and competence are more stable compared to younger teachers who are concerned with their certification and salary (Sagor, 2003; Dornyei, 2001; Bairagee, 2008).
Gerdtham & Johannesson (2002) investigates the relationship between happiness and socio-economic variables of 5,000 individuals in Sweden. The results show that happiness increases with income, health and education, and decreases with unemployment, urbanization, being single and male gender. The relationship between age and happiness is U-shaped, with happiness being lowest in the age group 45 to 64 years old.
Civil status, educational attainment and living accommodations were found out to be string predictors of job satisfaction (Martires, 2009; Cabigao, 1980). Stressors like marital problems and child care affected female academic’s job satisfaction more so than such stressors did to their male colleagues (Bilge, et. al., 2007; Tack & Patitu, 1993). Bilge, et. al. (2007), found mixed results on the relationships of civil status and job satisfaction. One research shows married academics and those with children to have higher degrees of job satisfaction than did academics who where single as well as those who has no children, and another research reported that single academics had higher degrees of job satisfaction than did their married counterparts. Bilge, et. al. (2007) found out too that single persons have lower satisfaction regarding administrative style, opportunities for advancement and physical conditions. Peiro (2002) examined the relationships between socio-economic conditions and happiness or satisfaction on individuals in 15 countries. In agreement with other studies, age, health and marital status are strongly associated with happiness and satisfaction. In seeming contrast with other studies, unemployment does not appear to be associated with happiness although it is clearly associated with satisfaction. Income is strongly associated with satisfaction.
Herzberg et. al. (1957) identified several characteristics of satisfied and dissatisfied workers. They indicated that morale is high when people first start their jobs then decreases during the next few years and remains at a relatively low level until workers are in their late twenties or early thirties. At that age, job satisfaction levels begin to rise and continue to rise through the remainder of the workers’ careers. Some studies reviewed by Herzberg et. al. (1957) gave no simple conclusions about the differences in the area of gender, educational level, marital status, number of dependents, number of previous occupations, and ethnicity.
According to Osias (2005), the average number of dependents of parents in the Philippines is three. This means that teachers are supporting economically three persons. In spite of this reality, Barcelo (1998) found out that teachers’ adequacy and effectiveness in classroom strategies do not differ as to number of children, age, sex, civil status, educational attainment, and number of years of teaching.
Length of Service
Seniority affects job satisfaction differently for different people. Sometimes satisfaction increases as people learn to perform more proficiently. For others, satisfaction decreases due to boredom or due to the realization that their goals and careers are not advancing as they had hoped (Drafke & Kossen, 2002; Tremblay, et. al., 1995). Cano & Miller (1992) found out that the teachers’ age, years in current position, total years teaching and degree were not significantly related to overall job satisfaction. In general, both males and females were equally satisfied with their jobs. A similar study was done by Castillo et. al. (1999) and found similar findings. Their findings are contrary to the findings of Berns (1989) who found out that the age of teachers and those with master degree are more satisfied in their work and Grady (1985) who found out years of teaching is significantly related with job satisfaction.
La Madrid (1996) made a similar research on the relationship among job satisfaction, work values and job performance. She found out that the personnel were satisfied with their jobs; the variables of sex, age, civil status, educational attainment and sector were found not to be significantly related to job satisfaction, although designation and year of service were; the personnel were rated very satisfactory in their job performance; and, the correlation between job satisfaction and work values and job performance were high; between job satisfaction and job performance, moderately high.
Corpuz (1997) found out that the performance of Social Science teachers in public schools do not differ as to age, sex, civil status and number of years of teaching. In a research by Chiumento (2007) about happiness and work, she found out the following: (1) people are happiest working for smaller organizations between 20 to 100 staff; (2) happiness declines the longer people stay with an organization; (3) happiness also declines as people stay longer in the same position; (4) there is no difference in happiness among those working in public or private organizations; (5) those occupying higher positions are more happy than those who are in rank and file; (6) people who work part-time are happier than those who work full-time; (7) women feel more job satisfaction than men; and, (8) those aged 55 and above are happier than their younger age workers.
Studies found different results on the role of educational attainment to work. One study showed a weak relationship between education and motivation at work (Antwi, 2004; Bairagee, 2008) while other research disproved it (Nath, 2002; Bairagee, 2008). Scott et. al. (2005) in their review of related literature discovered the following: (1) Regarding age, intrinsic job satisfaction was higher for those in the age groups of 23-33 and 46-50; (2) Regarding years of teaching, some found significant relationships while others no significant relationships; (3) Regarding education, some discovered a relationship between educational level and job satisfaction while others found no such relationship; (4) Regarding marital status, the reviewed literature found out that married workers are more satisfied with their jobs than those who were single; (5) Regarding gender, the literature is divergent where some studies indicate that females have higher levels of job satisfaction, while others indicate that males do.
It was found out that a teacher’s satisfaction with her work depends on his/her competence which relates also the educational attainment of teachers (Johnson et. al., 2005). The research by the Colorado Pay Equity Commission (2007) mentioned educational attainment, along with work and occupational differences, previous work experience, and negotiation practices, as strategies to close the pay gap among those with higher and lower pays.
Martires (2009) quoted Alano’s research (1991) where it revealed that most employees work because of three major reasons: (1) for service to others; (2) challenging work environment; and, (3) salary and benefits that come with the work. Dajoc (1991) also found out that workers expressed that absence of good pay would be good reason to change jobs. Padua (1991) found out that money motivate secondary school educators in both public and private institutions perceived to be a means to survive and to be a source of authority. Setiawan (1975) found out that the most important job morale factor was salary.
In the context of teachers, it was found out that there is a significant relationship between academic job satisfaction and wages (Bilge, et. al., 2007; Heller, et. al., 1993). Drafke and Kossen (2002) identified money as a motivator because of five reasons: money is a traditional and societal expectation as a reward for those who work; it is tangible and a solid reward perceptible to all; it is objective, knowable and easily measurable; it is symbolic of success and achievement; and, it is better compared to subjective rewards.
Easterlin (2006) found out that in the United States happiness rises slightly, on average, from ages 18 to midlife, and declines slowly thereafter. The slight rise of happiness through midlife is due chiefly to growing satisfaction with one’s family life and work, which together more than offset decreasing satisfaction with health. His research is consistent with a “bottom up” model in which happiness is the net outcome of both objective and subjective factors in various life domains that include financial situation, family life, health and work.
Garcia (1982) found out that majority of the teachers in the Division of Cebu City are emotionally stable and their common problems are low salary, lack of school leadership, and financial difficulties.
There is a significant relationship between academic job satisfaction and permanence of employment (Bilge, et. al., 2007; Bertz & Judge, 1994). Blue collar “blues” have been referred to the feelings of laborers (manufacturing and construction workers) about the absence of opportunity to progress to desired higher level jobs that would provide them with opportunities for creativity, responsibility, control and other characteristics related to job satisfaction (Lowenberg & Conrad, 1998; Sheppard & Herrick, 1972). Bilge, et. al. (2007) noted that for white collar workers, intrinsic factors are more important but for blue-collar workers, extrinsic factors are more important. They also noted that for scientists, success is the most motivating factor but for engineers, low pay and organizational policies are highly important affecting job satisfaction (Hampton, 1972).
Akpa (2006) discovered that job or employment status has a positive effect on the workers of Northern Luzon Adventist College. Maslow identified safety needs is one of the motivating factors that give a feeling of security, stability and protection from physical and economic harm and against deprivation in the future (Champoux, 2000; Nickels et. al., 1996).